"ON THE DYNAMICS OF MEN AND BOATS AND OARS,"
D.L. Pope,
Chester, NJ
ABSTRACT
The complex dynamic system of boat, oars, and men that comprises
a racing shell is considered in the context of classical dynamic and
hydrodynamic principles. A description of the equipment and technique
of competitive crew racing is followed by a detailed development of an
appropriate mathematical model to describe the interaction of the system
components. An approximate solution for the non-linear system of
equations of the model is then obtained. Expressions for average force
and power during a stroke are given and related to the parameters of the
motion. An example illustrates velocity variations of +-20% during the
rowing cycle of stroke and run. It is shown that the minimum velocity
occurs midway through the stroke. The effects of the geometry of the
rig are discussed, as is the relative effectiveness of the stroke at
catch and recovery. Finally, an unorthodox rowing style is examined
and found to be both impractical and ineffective.
D.L.Pope, On the dynamics of men and boats and oars, in "Mechanics and
Sport," Edited by J.L.Bleustein, ASME, New York, 1973, pp. 113-130.